Lord Canning (1856 - 1862)

 

  • The British Governor General during first war of Indian Independence.
  • First Viceroy of India.
  • The universities of Calcutta, Bombay, Madras were established-1857.
  • First University in India - Calcutta University
  • Doctrine of lapse was officially withdrawn.
  • Introduced Income tax first in India.
  • White Mutiny in English East India Company - 1859.
  • Passed Indian Penal Code - 1860
  • Indigo revolt in Bengal -1860.
  • Passed The Indian High Court Act - 1861.
  • Passed Indian council Act - 1861.
  • Introduced Portfolio system - 1861
  • Introduced certain reforms in the army.

 

 

Lord Elgin ( 1862 - 1863)

 

  • Served only a short period, died within 18 months of coming to India.
  • Amalgamation of Supreme court and Sadr court into High Court.
  • High court were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
  • Avoided levying taxes.
  • Tried to keep down the military expenditure.
  • He successfully suppressed Wahabis.

 

 

Sir John Lawrence ( 1864 - 1869)

 

  • He is called ‘the saviour of India and organizer of victory’.
  • Scholarship scheme was introduced.
  • A large number of canals, railway and public works were established.
  • Famine Commission was constituted.
  • He aimed to uplift peasantry.
  • Telegraph communication was opened with Europe.
  • Created Indian Forest department.

 

 

Lord Mayo (1869 - 1872)

 

  • Father of financial decentralisation in India.
  • He started the process of decentralisation of finance in India.
  • Kuka movement was active.
  • Organised statistical survey of India.
  • A new department of agriculture was started.
  • Introduced sales Department in India.
  • First census held ( 1871-1872).
  • Started railway in public sector.
  • Murdered by Sher Ali at Andaman.
  • Indian evidence act passed-1872.
  • Mayo college situated at Ajmer(Rajasthan).

 

 

Lord Northbrook (1872-1876)

 

  • Believer of free Trade.
  • Kuka movement of Punjab took rebellion.
  • Lowered import duty and established export duty on many countries.
  • He submitted resignation against the action of Lord Salisbury In Afghan Problem

 

 

Lord Lytton ( 1876 - 1880)

 

  • Appointed famine commission under the leadership of Richard Strachey-1878
  • Passed royal Titles Act.
  • Abolished custom duties on textiles imported from England.
  • Vernacular press act - 1878.
  • Arms act -1878.
  • He was well known as ‘ Owen Meredith’
  • Conducted Delhi Durbar.
  • During his reign Victoria queen accepted Kaiser E Hind.
  • Introduced separate civil service exams for Indians.
  • Indian Civil Service age lower from 21 to 18.
  • Anglo Afghan War - 1878.
  • Viceroy of reverse Character.
  • Aligarh Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College Stated during the time of Lytton

 

 

Lord Ripon ( 1880 - 1884)

 

  • First factory act was passed - 1881.
  • Introduce regular census in India - 1881
  • Local self Government act - 1882.
  • Father of local self government in India.
  • Withdrawn Vernacular press act.
  • Agricultural department reorganised.
  • Viceroy at the time of ‘Ilbert bill Controversy’
  • Ilbert bill Passed in the year 1883
  • Hunder commission ( education ) appointed.
  • Known as ‘ Rippon the popular’

 

 

Lord Dufferin (1884 - 1888)

 

  • At the time of formation of INC
  • Third anglo-burmese war held
  • Organised PSC
  • States that ‘Congress is a microscopic minority’

 

 

Lord Lansdowne ( 1888-1894)

 

  • Passed Indian Council act - 1892
  • Cancelled separate ICS exam for Indians
  • Divide ICS into three - Imperial, Provisional, Subordinate
  • Appointed Durrant Commission for separating India and Afghanistan (Mortimer Durrant)

 

 

Lord Curzon (1899 - 1905)

 

  • First viceroy to visit Travancore -1900
  • Called Alapuzha as ‘Venice of East’
  • Appointed University Education Commission- 1902
  • Indian Universities Act - 1904
  • Indian Coinage and Paper Currency act
  • Famine Commission appointed - Anthony Macdonell( leader)
  • Police Commission appointed - Andrew Fraser (leader)
  • Ancient Monument Act passed
  • Known as ‘Aurangzeb of British India’
  • Organised Archeological survey of India - 1904 , Director general - John Marshal
  • First director general - Sir John Marshall
  • Partition of bengal 
  • Bengal people celebrated Oct 16 as Day of sorrow.
  • Congress started Swadeshi Movement after Bengal Partition
  • Bengal Swadeshi stores started by- P C Roy
  • Divide and rule policy
  • States ‘come here to peaceful death of Congress’
  • States ‘his ancestor captured India by Gun and Sword, so he also use that to rule India’
  • The book ‘Life of Lord Curzon’ written by Ronald Shea

 

 

Lord Minto  II ( 1905 - 1910)

 

  • Viceroy at the time of formation of Muslim League -1906
  • Indian Council Act 1909 - Minto Morley Reforms
  • First reforms setup community reservation in India
  • By minto morley reforms appointed an indian in viceroy’s executive council.

 

 

Lord Hardinge II ( 1910 - 1916)

 

  • Shifted capital from Calcutta to Delhi -1911
  • Partition of bengal cancelled- 1911
  • George V visited at this time
  • Separated Bihar and Orissa from bengal
  • Passed Defence of India Act - 1915
  • Rash Bihari Bose tried to kill Hardinge II in Delhi - 1912

 

 

Lord Chelmsford ( 1916 - 1921 )

 

  • Govt of India Act 1919 - Montague-Chelmsford Act
  • Rowlatt act passed - 1919
  • Appointed University Commission - Saddler Commission
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
  • Appointed Hunter Commission to investigate Jallianwala incident
  • Viceroy at the time of third Afghan War
  • Banaras Hindu University -1916 at his time
  • Mohammadan Anglo oriental college by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
  • Mohammadan Anglo oriental college became Aligarh Muslim University at his time- 1920

 

 

Lord Reading ( 1921 - 1926 )

 

  • Only Jewish Viceroy
  • Abolish Devadasi System
  • Separated Railway budget from General Budget -1921
  • Appointed Hilton Young commission - RBI
  • Rowlatt Act withdrawn.
  • King of Wales visited india during his period

 

 

Lord Irwin ( 1926 - 1931 )

 

  • Known as Christian Viceroy.
  • Viceroy at the time of arrival of Simon commission -1928
  • First round table Conference - 1930
  • First viceroy live in Rashtrapathi bhavan
  • Chittagong Attack - 1930
  • Gandhi Irwin Pact - 1931
  • Saradha law - 1929 , marriage age boys - 18 , girls -14
  • Capital of India changed from Delhi to New Delhi - 1931 feb 10

 

 

Lord Willingdon ( 1931 - 1936 )

 

  • Viceroy at the time of 2nd and 3rd  Round Table Conference
  • Poona pact - 1932 ( Gandhi & Ambedkar )
  • British PM proclaimed Communal Award - Ramsay Macdonald.
  • Govt of India Act 1935

 

 

Lord Linlithgow ( 1936 - 1943 )

 

  • August Offer -1940
  • Cripps Mission - 1942
  • Quit India Movement - 1942
  • Viceroy proclaimed India stay with Britain to fight against Germany.in 2nd Woldwar.

 

 

Lord Wavell ( 1944 - 1947 )

 

  • Simla Conference - 1945 leader - Wavell
  • Royal Indian Mutiny - 1946
  • Cabinet Mission - 1946
  • Constituent Assembly - 1946 dec 6
  • Viceroy at the time of formation of Interim Government.
  • 1946 Aug 16 muslim league celebrated Direct Action Day

 

 

Lord Mountbatten ( 1947 March - 1947 August )

 

  • Last Viceroy
  • Indian Independence Act prepared under his leadership.
  • Partition of India - June 3rd plan - Mountbatten plan - Dickie Bird Plan - Balcon plan
  • He murdered at Ireland.